Pattern of Retinopathy: Although the locus of toxic damage is parafoveal in many eyes, Asian patients often show an extramacular pattern of damage. Dose: We recommend a maximum daily HCQ use of 5.0 mg/kg real weight, which correlates better with risk than ideal weight. What does hydroxychloroquine do for ra Plasmodium resistance to chloroquine Plaquenil information sheet Plaquenil prescription assistance programs The mechanism of hydroxychloroquine retinal toxicity has yet to be fully elucidated. Studies have shown that the drug affects the metabolism of retinal cells and also binds to melanin in the RPE, which could explain the persistent toxicity after discontinuation of the medication. The idiosyncratic nature of this adverse effect may be related to interindividual differences in drug metabolism. To understand why only some patients develop retinopathy, better pharmacokinetic models need to be developed, and further elucidation of the precise mechanism of retinal damage is required. Jan 05, 2020 Hydroxychloroquine retinopathy causes destruction of macular rods and cones with sparing of foveal cones. This pattern provides the typical bullseye appearance. RPE migrates into the areas of destructed photoreceptors, causing pigment laden cells to be detected in the outer nuclear and outer plexiform layers 1. Risk of Toxicity: The risk of toxicity is dependent on daily dose and duration of use. There are no similar demographic data for CQ, but dose comparisons in older literature suggest using 2.3 mg/kg real weight. Hydroxychloroquine retinopathy mechanism Hydroxychloroquine retinopathy Request PDF, Hydroxychloroquine-Induced Retinopathy SpringerLink When will story on cbs about plaquenil airArtemisinin-based combination therapy chloroquine Mechanism of action The precise mechanism by which hydroxychloroquine exhibits activity against Plasmodium is not known. Hydroxychloroquine, like chloroquine, is a weak base and may exert its effect by concentrating in the acid vesicles of the parasite and by inhibiting polymerization of heme. Plaquenil - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses. Hydroxychloroquine toxicity - EyeWiki. Hydroxychloroquine Uses, Dosage & Side Effects -. Hydroxychloroquine is almost universally recommended for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus SLE and has wide-ranging benefits, but risks include toxic retinopathy. A proposed mechanism. Hydroxychloroquine HCQ is nearly identical in structure to CQ and has a similar mechanism of action and therapeutic efficacy in rheumatological and infectious diseases. Like CQ, it also has a long half-life, and a very high volume of distribution. The mechanism of retinopathy induced by chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine has not been fully delineated, yet in vitro evidence suggests it affects the photoreceptors indirectly via the retinal pigment epithelial cells.