Chloroquine has been extensively used in mass drug administrations, which may have contributed to the emergence and spread of resistance. It is recommended to check if chloroquine is still effective in the region prior to using it. Hydroxychloroquine prevent miscarriage Chloroquine resistant vivax malaria treatment Chloroquine vs mefloquine Chloroquine is a 9-aminoquinoline that has been known since 1934. Specifically synthesised to be used as an antimalarial agent, chloroquine was subsequently shown to have immunomodulatory properties that have encouraged its application in the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Chloroquine was one of the drugs successfully developed. The drug was first used during the 1950s. Chloroquine is effective against erythrocytic forms of the Plasmodium parasite. Like chloroquine, the drugs amodiaquine and hydroxychloroquine belong to a class of quinine analogues called 4-aminoquinolines. During the literature search, it was observed that there are only two approaches for the synthesis of chiral chloroquine using glutamic acid and pyroglutamic acid as starting materials.7, 8 There are limitations associated with these methods viz. the reaction involves the conversion of carboxylic acid group to methyl which is a low yielding step, secondly, only methyl group could be introduced at the chiral center. In order to optimize substituent group at the chiral carbon, it is important. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend against treatment of malaria with chloroquine alone due to more effective combinations. In areas where resistance is present, other antimalarials, such as mefloquine or atovaquone, may be used instead. Synthesis of chloroquine ppt Anti Malarial Drugs authorSTREAM, Medicinal Chemistry of Antimalarial Drugs Plaquenil heatPlaquenil side effects tinnitusChloroquine antibodyPanama chloroquine Chloroquine CQ was first introduced in the 1940s and quickly became the drug of choice for the treatment of malaria. CQ has several advantages over other antimalarial drugs its low cost made it available to everyone; its low toxicity meant it was safe for children and pregnant women, the most vulnerable victims of malaria; and its good efficacy meant the treatment regime was simple and easy to administer. Synthesis, Structure-Activity Relationship, & Mode-of.. Synthesis of chiral chloroquine and its analogues as.. Synthesis, Structure-Activity Relationship, & Mode-of-Action.. Synthesis of New Chloroquine Derivatives as Antimalarial Agents. A series of hybrid molecules referred to as “reversed chloroquines” RCQs were designed, synthesized, and tested against chloroquine resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Chloroquine resistance is widespread in P. falciparum and is reported in P. vivax. Prior to initiation of chloroquine for prophylaxis, it should be determined if chloroquine is appropriate for use in the region to be visited; do not use for malaria prophylaxis in areas where chloroquine resistance occurs. The exact mechanism of antimalarial activity of chloroquine has not been determined. The 4-aminoquinoline derivatives appear to bind to nucleoproteins and interfere with protein synthesis in susceptible organisms; the drugs intercalate readily into double-stranded DNA and inhibit both DNA and RNA polymerase. In addition, studies using chloroquine indicate that the drug apparently concentrates in parasite digestive vacuoles, increases the pH of the vacuoles, and interferes with the parasite's.