Resistance to currently available antimalarial drugs has been confirmed in only two of the four human malaria parasite species, first developed independently in three to four areas in Southeast Asia, Oceania, and South America in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Since then, chloroquine resistance has spread to nearly all areas of the world where falciparum malaria is transmitted. Pancreatitis and plaquenil Plaquenil inflammatory arthritis Chloroquine CQ is one of the most widely consumed drugs 1988, an estimated 190 tons of CQ base were used in Africa alone. Self-medication, inadequate dosing, and subtherapeutic levels in blood are frequent and are believed to be predominant factors that contribute to CQ resistance in Plasmodium falciparum. However, data on actual CQ levels in residents of areas where malaria is. Drug resistance has been implicated in the spread of malaria to new areas and re-emergence of malaria in areas where the disease had been eradi- cated. Drug resistance has also played a significant role in the occurrence and severity of epidemics in some parts of the world. Resistance to anti- malarial drugs in patients is becoming a worrisome phenomenon in Nigeria. It has posed serious challenge of combating malaria in most parts of the world. Although resistance to these drugs tends to be much less widespread geographically, in some areas of the world, the impact of multi-drug resistant malaria can be extensive. Has also developed resistance to nearly all of the other currently available antimalarial drugs, such as sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, mefloquine, halofantrine, and quinine. Nigeria malaria chloroquine resistance New Discovery Reveals Africa's Anti-Malaria Drug., Drug resistance in malaria - World Health Organization Plaquenil side effects weight lossPlaquenil and rheumatoid arthritis reviewsChloroquine lyme disease Drug Resistance 2 Malaria Species 3 Recommended Chemoprophylaxis 4 Key Information Needed and Helpful Links to Assess Need for Prophylaxis for Select Countries; Namibia Present in the regions of Kavango East and West, Kunene, Ohangwena, Omusati, Oshana, Oshikoto, Otjozunjupa, and Zambezi. Rare cases in other parts of the country. No malaria in city of Windhoek. Chloroquine CDC - Malaria - Travelers - Malaria Information and.. Nigeria Why New Malaria Strain Resists Drugs -. Nigeria Chloroquine Making a Comeback Against Malaria.. Chloroquine phosphate has been “unanimously” approved by experts in China to be used in the fight against the deadly Covid-19 virus, the state-run China Global Television Network reports. The drug proved effective at treating and also preventing malaria for decades before malarial parasites developed resistance to it. The term “chloroquine resistance” can lead to misunderstandings when it is considered by some to refer to in vitro phenotypes, by others to refer to the ability of malaria parasites to survive chloroquine at therapeutic serum concentrations in vivo, and yet by others to refer to the outcome of a clinical episode after chloroquine therapy. Happi CT, Gbotosho GO, Folarin OA, et al. Linkage disequilibrium between two distinct loci in chromosomes 5 and 7 of Plasmodium falciparum and in-vivo chloroquine resistance in Southwest Nigeria. Parasitol Res. 2006; 11–148.